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第 2 章 MongoDB

目录

2.1. Install 安装MongoDB
2.1.1. Quickstart
2.1.1.1. 二进制tar包安装
2.1.1.2. Ubuntu MongoDB
2.1.1.3. CentOS MongoDB
2.1.1.4. 从官网安装最新版本的 MongoDB 3.4
2.1.1.5. MongoDB + Hadoop
2.1.2. Replication
2.1.2.1. Master
2.1.2.2. Slave
2.1.2.3. 测试
2.1.3. Drivers
2.1.3.1. Using MongoDB in PHP
2.2. MongoDB 管理
2.2.1. Security and Authentication
2.2.1.1. 超级管理员
2.2.1.2. 数据库访问用户
2.2.1.3. 数据库监控用户
2.2.1.4. 删除用户
2.2.1.5. 更新角色
2.2.2. Unique Indexes
2.2.2.1. 索引管理
2.3. 命令工具
2.3.1. mongo - MongoDB Shell
2.3.1.1. eval
2.3.1.2. help
2.3.1.3. 登陆认证
2.3.2. mongodump - Backup
2.3.2.1. 远程备份
2.3.2.2. 本地备份
2.3.3. mongorestore
2.3.3.1. 远程回复
2.3.3.2. 本地恢复
2.3.3.3. filter
2.3.4. mongostat
2.3.5. mongotop
2.3.6. mongofiles - Browse and modify a GridFS filesystem.
2.3.6.1. list 浏览文件
2.3.6.2. put 上传文件
2.3.6.3. get 下载
2.3.6.4. delete 删除
2.4. MongoDB Shell
2.4.1. show 查看命令
2.4.1.1. show dbs
2.4.1.2. show collections
2.4.1.3. show users
2.4.1.4. show profile
2.4.2. 切换数据库
2.4.3. save
2.4.4. insert
2.4.5. update
2.4.6. remove
2.4.6.1. 删除条件使用 _id
2.4.7. 删除 collection
2.4.8. count()
2.4.9. group()
2.4.10. find() MongoDB 2.x
2.4.11. find() MongoDB 3.x
2.4.11.1. Query
2.4.11.2. 包含字段
2.4.11.3. 排除字段
2.4.11.4. sort()
2.4.12. 管道操作
2.4.13. shutdownServer
2.4.14. aggregate
2.4.14.1. project
2.4.14.2. groupby + sum
2.5. Mongo Admin UI
2.5.1. RockMongo
2.5.2. MongoVUE
2.6. Map-Reduce
2.6.1. 使用 Map-Reduce 统计Web 服务器 access.log 日志文件
2.7. FAQ
2.7.1. MongoDB 3.x 启用认证后恢复数据库需指定 collection
2.7.2. MongoDB 2.x 早期版本用户管理

http://www.mongodb.org/

2.1. Install 安装MongoDB

2.1.1. Quickstart

2.1.1.1. 二进制tar包安装

Install MongoDB

wget http://fastdl.mongodb.org/linux/mongodb-linux-x86_64-1.5.5.tgz

debian:/srv# tar zxf mongodb-linux-x86_64-1.5.5.tgz
debian:/srv# ln -s mongodb-linux-x86_64-1.5.5 mongodb
			

Create a data directory

By default MongoDB will store data in /data/db, but it won't automatically create that directory. To create it, do:

$ sudo mkdir -p /data/db/
$ sudo chown `id -u` /data/db
			

You can also tell MongoDB to use a different data directory, with the --dbpath option.

Run and connect to the server

First, start the MongoDB server in one terminal:

$ ./mongodb/bin/mongod
			

In a separate terminal, start the shell, which will connect to localhost by default:

$ ./mongodb/bin/mongo
> db.foo.save( { a : 1 } )
> db.foo.find()
			

Congratulations, you've just saved and retrieved your first document with MongoDB!

例 2.1. MongoDB Test

				
debian:/srv/mongodb/bin# ./mongo
MongoDB shell version: 1.5.5
connecting to: test
[initandlisten] Thu Jul 22 16:42:07 connection accepted from 127.0.0.1:42876 #1
> db.foo.save({a:1})
Thu Jul 22 16:42:23 allocating new datafile /data/db/test.ns, filling with zeroes...
Thu Jul 22 16:42:23 done allocating datafile /data/db/test.ns, size: 16MB,  took 0.025 secs
Thu Jul 22 16:42:23 allocating new datafile /data/db/test.0, filling with zeroes...
Thu Jul 22 16:42:23 done allocating datafile /data/db/test.0, size: 64MB,  took 0.105 secs
[conn1] Thu Jul 22 16:42:23 building new index on { _id: 1 } for test.foo
[conn1] Thu Jul 22 16:42:23 Buildindex test.foo idxNo:0 { name: "_id_", ns: "test.foo", key: { _id: 1 } }
[conn1] Thu Jul 22 16:42:23 done for 0 records 0secs
[conn1] Thu Jul 22 16:42:23 insert test.foo 136ms
> Thu Jul 22 16:42:23 allocating new datafile /data/db/test.1, filling with zeroes...
Thu Jul 22 16:42:24 done allocating datafile /data/db/test.1, size: 128MB,  took 0.228 secs
> db.foo.find()
{ "_id" : ObjectId("4c48046f74050cbf6c9a0ef6"), "a" : 1 }

> use neo
switched to db neo
> db.foo.save({a:1})
Thu Jul 22 16:54:50 allocating new datafile /data/db/neo.ns, filling with zeroes...
Thu Jul 22 16:54:50 done allocating datafile /data/db/neo.ns, size: 16MB,  took 0.026 secs
Thu Jul 22 16:54:50 allocating new datafile /data/db/neo.0, filling with zeroes...
Thu Jul 22 16:54:50 done allocating datafile /data/db/neo.0, size: 64MB,  took 0.122 secs
[conn1] Thu Jul 22 16:54:50 building new index on { _id: 1 } for neo.foo
[conn1] Thu Jul 22 16:54:50 Buildindex neo.foo idxNo:0 { name: "_id_", ns: "neo.foo", key: { _id: 1 } }
Thu Jul 22 16:54:50 allocating new datafile /data/db/neo.1, filling with zeroes...
[conn1] Thu Jul 22 16:54:50 done for 0 records 0.01secs
[conn1] Thu Jul 22 16:54:50 insert neo.foo 164ms
> Thu Jul 22 16:54:50 done allocating datafile /data/db/neo.1, size: 128MB,  took 0.217 secs

> db.foo.find()
{ "_id" : ObjectId("4c48075a74050cbf6c9a0ef7"), "a" : 1 }
>

> db.neo.save({a:1})
[conn1] Thu Jul 22 16:58:32 building new index on { _id: 1 } for neo.neo
[conn1] Thu Jul 22 16:58:32 Buildindex neo.neo idxNo:0 { name: "_id_", ns: "neo.neo", key: { _id: 1 } }
[conn1] Thu Jul 22 16:58:32 done for 0 records 0.024secs
> db.neo.find()
{ "_id" : ObjectId("4c48083874050cbf6c9a0ef8"), "a" : 1 }

				
				

Starting Mongo

Running as a Daemon

 $ ./mongod --fork --logpath /var/log/mongodb.log --logappend
			

2.1.1.2. Ubuntu MongoDB

$ sudo apt-get install mongodb-server mongodb-clients
			
$ /etc/init.d/mongodb
Usage: /etc/init.d/mongodb {start|stop|force-stop|restart|force-reload|status}
			

2.1.1.3. CentOS MongoDB

CentOS 默认 MongoDB 是 2.6.12

[root@iZ623h9icu8Z ~]# yum info mongodb
Loaded plugins: langpacks
Repodata is over 2 weeks old. Install yum-cron? Or run: yum makecache fast
Available Packages
Name        : mongodb
Arch        : x86_64
Version     : 2.6.12
Release     : 3.el7
Size        : 43 M
Repo        : epel/x86_64
Summary     : High-performance, schema-free document-oriented database
URL         : http://www.mongodb.org
License     : AGPLv3 and zlib and ASL 2.0
Description : Mongo (from "humongous") is a high-performance, open source, schema-free
            : document-oriented database. MongoDB is written in C++ and offers the following
            : features:
            :     * Collection oriented storage: easy storage of object/JSON-style data
            :     * Dynamic queries
            :     * Full index support, including on inner objects and embedded arrays
            :     * Query profiling
            :     * Replication and fail-over support
            :     * Efficient storage of binary data including large objects (e.g. photos
            :     and videos)
            :     * Auto-sharding for cloud-level scalability (currently in early alpha)
            :     * Commercial Support Available
            : 
            : A key goal of MongoDB is to bridge the gap between key/value stores (which are
            : fast and highly scalable) and traditional RDBMS systems (which are deep in
            : functionality).
			
			
# yum install mongodb-server

# chkconfig mongod on

# service mongod start
			

单独安装客户端

# yum install mongodb
			

2.1.1.4. 从官网安装最新版本的 MongoDB 3.4

官网的rpm包是如下

[root@netkiller ~]# yum search mongodb | grep "\-org"
mongodb-org.x86_64 : MongoDB open source document-oriented database system
mongodb-org-mongos.x86_64 : MongoDB sharded cluster query router
mongodb-org-server.x86_64 : MongoDB database server
mongodb-org-shell.x86_64 : MongoDB shell client
mongodb-org-tools.x86_64 : MongoDB tools			
			
			
#!/bin/sh
cat << 'EOF' >> /etc/yum.repos.d/mongodb-org-3.4.repo
[mongodb-org-3.4]
name=MongoDB Repository
baseurl=https://repo.mongodb.org/yum/redhat/$releasever/mongodb-org/3.4/x86_64/
gpgcheck=1
enabled=1
gpgkey=https://www.mongodb.org/static/pgp/server-3.4.asc
EOF
			
			
2.1.1.4.1. Server
				
yum install -y mongodb-org-server

cp /etc/mongod.conf{,.original}

systemctl is-enabled mongod
systemctl start mongod
				
				
2.1.1.4.2. Client
yum install -y mongodb-org-shell				
				

				
[root@netkiller ~]# mongo

MongoDB shell version v3.4.0
connecting to: mongodb://127.0.0.1:27017
MongoDB server version: 3.4.0
Welcome to the MongoDB shell.
For interactive help, type "help".
For more comprehensive documentation, see
	http://docs.mongodb.org/
Questions? Try the support group
	http://groups.google.com/group/mongodb-user
Server has startup warnings: 
2016-11-30T11:34:36.493+0800 I STORAGE  [initandlisten] 
2016-11-30T11:34:36.560+0800 I CONTROL  [initandlisten] 
2016-11-30T11:34:36.560+0800 I CONTROL  [initandlisten] ** WARNING: Access control is not enabled for the database.
2016-11-30T11:34:36.560+0800 I CONTROL  [initandlisten] **          Read and write access to data and configuration is unrestricted.
2016-11-30T11:34:36.560+0800 I CONTROL  [initandlisten] 
2016-11-30T11:34:36.560+0800 I CONTROL  [initandlisten] 
2016-11-30T11:34:36.560+0800 I CONTROL  [initandlisten] ** WARNING: /sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage/enabled is 'always'.
2016-11-30T11:34:36.560+0800 I CONTROL  [initandlisten] **        We suggest setting it to 'never'
2016-11-30T11:34:36.560+0800 I CONTROL  [initandlisten] 
2016-11-30T11:34:36.560+0800 I CONTROL  [initandlisten] ** WARNING: /sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage/defrag is 'always'.
2016-11-30T11:34:36.560+0800 I CONTROL  [initandlisten] **        We suggest setting it to 'never'
2016-11-30T11:34:36.560+0800 I CONTROL  [initandlisten] 
> show dbs
admin  0.000GB
local  0.000GB
> exit
bye
				
				
2.1.1.4.3. 工具
# yum install mongodb-org-tools

# rpm -ql mongodb-org-tools.x86_64 0:3.4.1-1.el7
/usr/bin/bsondump
/usr/bin/mongodump
/usr/bin/mongoexport
/usr/bin/mongofiles
/usr/bin/mongoimport
/usr/bin/mongooplog
/usr/bin/mongoperf
/usr/bin/mongorestore
/usr/bin/mongostat
/usr/bin/mongotop
/usr/share/man/man1/bsondump.1
/usr/share/man/man1/mongodump.1
/usr/share/man/man1/mongoexport.1
/usr/share/man/man1/mongofiles.1
/usr/share/man/man1/mongoimport.1
/usr/share/man/man1/mongooplog.1
/usr/share/man/man1/mongoperf.1
/usr/share/man/man1/mongorestore.1
/usr/share/man/man1/mongostat.1
/usr/share/man/man1/mongotop.1

				

2.1.1.5. MongoDB + Hadoop

Hadoop Connector

http://docs.mongodb.org/ecosystem/tutorial/getting-started-with-hadoop/

git clone https://github.com/mongodb/mongo-hadoop.git
git checkout release-1.0
			
# vim build.sbt
hadoopRelease in ThisBuild := "cdh4"
			
./sbt package
			
			
wget --no-check-certificate https://github.com/downloads/mongodb/mongo-java-driver/mongo-2.7.3.jar
cp mongo-2.7.3.jar /usr/lib/hadoop/lib/
cp core/target/mongo-hadoop-core_cdh3u3-1.0.0.jar /usr/lib/hadoop/lib/
			
			

待续......

2.1.2. Replication

很多教程上面采用手工配置主从复制,我不建议你这样启动,请采用修改/etc/mongod.conf配置文件的方案。

创建主:

mongod –port 27017 –dbpath /var/lib/mongodb –master

 创建从:

mongod –port 27017 –dbpath /var/lib/mongodb –slave –source master_ip_address:27017
		

2.1.2.1. Master

sed -i "s/#master = true/master = true/" /etc/mongod.conf

systemctl restart  mongod
			

2.1.2.2. Slave

sed -i "s/#slave = true/slave = true/" /etc/mongod.conf
sed -i "s/#source = arg/source = mongodb.master.example.com/" /etc/mongod.conf

systemctl restart  mongod
			

2.1.2.3. 测试

进入 Master

			
[root@localhost ~]# mongo
MongoDB shell version: 2.6.11
connecting to: test
Welcome to the MongoDB shell.
For interactive help, type "help".
For more comprehensive documentation, see
	http://docs.mongodb.org/
Questions? Try the support group
	http://groups.google.com/group/mongodb-user
Server has startup warnings:
2015-11-14T15:51:21.215+0800 [initandlisten]
2015-11-14T15:51:21.215+0800 [initandlisten] ** WARNING: Readahead for /var/lib/mongodb is set to 4096KB
2015-11-14T15:51:21.215+0800 [initandlisten] **          We suggest setting it to 256KB (512 sectors) or less
2015-11-14T15:51:21.215+0800 [initandlisten] **          http://dochub.mongodb.org/core/readahead
>
>
> db.foo.save({'name':'neo','address':{'city':'shenzhen','post':518000},'phone':[13113668890,13322993040]})
WriteResult({ "nInserted" : 1 })
> db.foo.find();
{ "_id" : ObjectId("5646e881a11081d5998bf70c"), "name" : "neo", "address" : { "city" : "shenzhen", "post" : 518000 }, "phone" : [ 13113668890, 13322993040 ] }
>
			
			

进入 Slave

			
[root@localhost ~]# mongo
MongoDB shell version: 2.6.11
connecting to: test
Welcome to the MongoDB shell.
For interactive help, type "help".
For more comprehensive documentation, see
	http://docs.mongodb.org/
Questions? Try the support group
	http://groups.google.com/group/mongodb-user
Server has startup warnings:
2015-11-14T15:51:23.668+0800 [initandlisten]
2015-11-14T15:51:23.668+0800 [initandlisten] ** WARNING: Readahead for /var/lib/mongodb is set to 4096KB
2015-11-14T15:51:23.668+0800 [initandlisten] **          We suggest setting it to 256KB (512 sectors) or less
2015-11-14T15:51:23.668+0800 [initandlisten] **          http://dochub.mongodb.org/core/readahead
> db.foo.find();
{ "_id" : ObjectId("5646e881a11081d5998bf70c"), "name" : "neo", "address" : { "city" : "shenzhen", "post" : 518000 }, "phone" : [ 13113668890, 13322993040 ] }
>
			
			

2.1.3. Drivers

2.1.3.1. Using MongoDB in PHP

Installing the PHP Driver

sudo pecl install mongo
			

Open your php.ini file and add to it:

extension=mongo.so
			

例 2.2. Using MongoDB in PHP

				
[root@subversion html]# cat mongo.php
<?php

// connect
$m = new Mongo('192.168.3.9');

// select a database
$db = $m->comedy;
$collection = $db->cartoons;

// add an element
$obj = array( "title" => "Calvin and Hobbes", "author" => "Bill Watterson" );
$collection->insert($obj);

// add another element, with a different "shape"
$obj = array( "title" => "XKCD", "online" => true );
$collection->insert($obj);

// find everything in the collection
$cursor = $collection->find();

// iterate through the results
foreach ($cursor as $obj) {
    echo $obj["title"] . "\n";
}

// disconnect
$m->close();

?>
				
				

[root@subversion html]# php mongo.php
Calvin and Hobbes
XKCD
[root@subversion html]# php mongo.php
Calvin and Hobbes
XKCD
Calvin and Hobbes
XKCD
				

				
> use comedy
switched to db comedy
> db.foo.find()
> db.cartoons.find()
{ "_id" : ObjectId("4c481d2b9503c17611000000"), "title" : "Calvin and Hobbes", "author" : "Bill Watterson" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("4c481d2b9503c17611010000"), "title" : "XKCD", "online" : true }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("4c481d2f9503c17711000000"), "title" : "Calvin and Hobbes", "author" : "Bill Watterson" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("4c481d2f9503c17711010000"), "title" : "XKCD", "online" : true }
>