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第 2 章 Build Tools

目录

2.1. Apache Ant
2.1.1. Project
2.1.1.1. property
2.1.1.2. ant
2.1.1.3. environment
2.1.2. path
2.1.3. copy
2.1.4. javac
2.1.5. condition
2.1.6. exec
2.1.6.1. sshexec
2.1.7. if
2.1.8. macrodef
2.1.8.1. Git
2.1.8.2. Rsync
2.1.8.3. SSH
2.1.8.4. maven
2.1.9. Javascript
2.1.10. mail
2.1.11. FAQ
2.1.11.1. warning: 'includeantruntime' was not set, defaulting to build.sysclasspath=last; set to false for repeatable builds
2.1.11.2. 调试 exec
2.2. Apache Ivy
2.2.1. Ivy Install
2.2.1.1. source code
2.2.1.2. apt-get
2.2.2. Test example
2.3. maven
2.3.1. 安装
2.3.1.1. Ubuntu
2.3.1.2. 源码安装
2.3.2. Maven 仓库
2.3.3. pom.xml
2.3.3.1. properties
2.3.3.2. dependencies
2.3.3.3. build
2.3.3.4. plugins
2.3.4. Maven 命令
2.3.4.1. clean
2.3.4.2. compile
2.3.4.3. test
2.3.4.4. package
2.3.4.5. install
2.3.4.6. war
2.3.4.7. exec
2.3.5. dependency
2.3.5.1. build-classpath
2.3.5.2. dependency:tree 显示包依赖树
2.3.5.3. copy-dependencies 导出依赖包
2.3.5.4. analyze 查看未被使用的包
2.3.5.5. sources 下载源码
2.3.6. help
2.3.7. resources 文件处理
2.3.8. plugins
2.3.8.1. maven-antrun-plugin
2.4. Gradle
2.4.1. gradle 命令
2.4.1.1. tasks 列出任务
2.4.2. build.gradle
2.4.2.1. repositories
2.4.2.2. dependencies
2.4.2.3. jar
2.4.3. gradle.properties
2.4.3.1. 列出 properties
2.4.3.2. 自定义 gradle.properties
2.4.3.3.
2.4.3.4. System.properties
2.4.4. Example

2.1. Apache Ant

http://ant.apache.org/

cd /usr/local/src
wget http://mirror.bjtu.edu.cn/apache//ant/binaries/apache-ant-1.8.1-bin.tar.gz
tar zxvf apache-ant-1.8.1-bin.tar.gz
mv apache-ant-1.8.1 /usr/local/
cd ..
ln -s apache-ant-1.8.1 apache-ant
	
ANT_HOME=/usr/local/apache-ant
export CLASSPATH=$CLASSPATH:$ANT_HOME/lib
	

2.1.1. Project

		
<description>project Name</description>
		
		

2.1.1.1. property

在 build.xml 中定义 property

			
<property name="src" value="src"/>
<property name="dest" value="classes"/>
<property name="hello" value="hello.jar"/>		
			
			

引用 properties 文件

			
<property file="build.properties" />
<propety resource="build.properties"/>
			
			

设置系统的环境变量为前缀

			
<property environment="env"/> 
<property name="tomcat.home" value="${env.CATALINA_HOME}"/> 
			
			

命令行传值,使用-D参数是会覆盖build.xml中的先前定义的变量

			
$ ant --help | grep property
  -D<property>=<value>   use value for given property
  -propertyfile <name>   load all properties from file with -D
  

	 		
			

2.1.1.2. ant

Project name

			
${ant.project.name}
			
			

2.1.1.3. environment

			
<property environment="env"/>
<echo message="JAVA_HOME is set to = ${env.JAVA_HOME}" />			
			
			

2.1.2. path

定义

		
	<path id="classpath">  
        <fileset dir="${env.JAVA_HOME}/lib">  
            <include name="*.jar" />  
        </fileset>  
        <fileset dir="${env.CATALINA_HOME}/lib">  
            <include name="*.jar" />  
        </fileset>  
        <fileset dir="WebRoot/WEB-INF/lib" includes="*.jar"/>
    </path>    
		
		

引用

		
	<javac srcdir="${src.dir}" destdir="${classes.dir}" source="1.5" target="1.5">  
		<classpath refid="classpath" />  
	</javac>		
		
		

		
    <classpath>
		<path refid="classpath"/>
    </classpath>		
		
		

2.1.3. copy

复制目录

		
	<copy todir="${basedir}/WebContent"> 
		<fileset dir="${basedir}/WebRoot" includes="**/*"/>
	</copy>	    
		
		

复制指定扩展名文件

		
	<copy todir="${dest}">  
		<fileset dir="${src}">  
			<include name="**/*.xml" />  
			<include name="**/*.properties" />  
		</fileset>
	</copy> 	
		
		

2.1.4. javac

		
	<path id="classpath">
		<fileset dir="${env.JAVA_HOME}/lib">
			<include name="*.jar" />
		</fileset>
		<fileset dir="${env.CATALINA_HOME}/lib">
			<include name="*.jar" />
		</fileset>
		<fileset dir="${project.dir}/WebRoot/WEB-INF/lib" includes="*.jar" />
	</path>

	<javac srcdir="${project.src}" destdir="${project.build}/WEB-INF/classes" debug="true" listfiles="true">
			<classpath refid="classpath" />
			<include name="**/*.java"/>
			<exclude name="**/*.xml"/>
			<exclude name="**/*.properties"/>
	</javac>
		
		

listfiles 显示编译文件列表

debug 显示调试信息,编译错误信息

2.1.5. condition

		
<?xml version="1.0"?>
<project name="test" default="doFoo" basedir=".">
  <property name="directory" value="/www/directory"/>

  <target name="doFoo" depends="dir.check" if="dir.exists">
    <echo>${directory} exists</echo>
  </target>

  <target name="doBar" depends="dir.check" unless="dir.exists">
    <echo>${directory} missing"</echo>
  </target>

  <target name="dir.check">
    <condition property="dir.exists">
      <available file="${directory}" type="dir"/>
    </condition>
  </target>
</project>		
		
		

2.1.6. exec

		
<project name="{{ name }}" default="help" basedir=".">
  
  <property name="username" value="{{ username }}"/>
  <property name="host" value="{{ host }}"/>
  <property name="dir" value="/srv/{{ path }}/"/>

  <tstamp>
    <format property="TODAY_UK" pattern="yyyyMMddhhmmss" locale="en,UK"/>
  </tstamp>

  <target name="help" description="show available commands" >
    <exec executable="ant" dir="." failonerror="true">
      <arg value="-p"/>
    </exec>
  </target>
  
  <target name="deploy-to" description="show where we are deploying to" >
    <echo>${username}@${host}:${dir}</echo>
  </target>

  <target name="deploy" description="deploy usng rsync" >
    <exec executable="rsync" dir="." failonerror="true">
      <arg value="-r"/>
      <arg value="."/>
      <arg value="${username}@${host}:${dir}"/>
      <arg value="--exclude-from=rsync.excludes"/>
      <arg value="-v"/>
    </exec>
  </target>

  <target name="deploy-test" description="test deploy usng rsync with the dry run flag set" >
    <exec executable="rsync" dir="." failonerror="true">
      <arg value="-r"/>
      <arg value="."/>
      <arg value="${username}@${host}:${dir}"/>
      <arg value="--exclude-from=rsync.excludes"/>
      <arg value="--dry-run"/>
      <arg value="-v"/>
    </exec>
  </target>

  <target name="backup" description="backup site" >
    <exec executable="scp" dir="." failonerror="true">
      <arg value="-r"/>
      <arg value="${username}@${host}:${dir}"/>
      <arg value="backups/${TODAY_UK}"/>
    </exec>
  </target>

</project>		
		
		

2.1.6.1. sshexec

			
<sshexec host="${remove}" keyfile="~/.ssh/id_rsa" command="/srv/apache-tomcat/bin/catalina.sh stop -force" />			
			
			

2.1.7. if

		
		
<if>
  <available file="my_directory" type="dir" />
  <then>
    <echo message="Directory exists" />
  </then>
  <else>
    <echo message="Directory does not exist" />
  </else>
</if>		
		
		
		

Ant 1.9.x 新增 xmlns:if="ant:if"

		
<project name="tryit"
 xmlns:if="ant:if"
 xmlns:unless="ant:unless"
>
 <exec executable="java">
   <arg line="-X" if:true="${showextendedparams}"/>
   <arg line="-version" unless:true="${showextendedparams}"/>
 </exec>
 <condition property="onmac">
   <os family="mac"/>
 </condition>
 <echo if:set="onmac">running on MacOS</echo>
 <echo unless:set="onmac">not running on MacOS</echo>
</project>


<!DOCTYPE project>
<project xmlns:if="ant:if" xmlns:unless="ant:unless">
  <property unless:set="property" name="property.is.set" value="false"/>
  <property if:set="property" name="property.is.set" value="true"/>
  <echo>${property.is.set}</echo>
</project>
		
		

2.1.8. macrodef

arg value 与 arg line

arg line 可以处理参数的空格, 而arg value则不能. arg line 可以处理空参数, arg value传递空参数会报错.

		
<exec executable = "sh" dir = "@{dir}">
	<arg line = "ls -l /var/log" />
</exec>


<exec executable = "ls" dir = "@{dir}">
	<arg value = "-l" />
	<arg value = "/var/log" />
</exec>
		
		
		
        <macrodef name="mvn">
                <attribute name="options" default="" />
                <attribute name="goal" default="" />
                <attribute name="phase" default=" " />
                <attribute name="dir" default="" />
                <element name="args" optional="false" />
                <sequential>
                        <exec executable="mvn" dir="@{dir}" >
                                <arg value="@{options}" />
                                <arg value="@{goal}" />
                                <arg value="@{phase}" />
                        </exec>
                </sequential>
        </macrodef>

<!-- 执行下面宏将会出错,你必须传递options,phase参数 -->
<mvn goal="package" dir="${project.dir}"/>
<!-- 将vale改为line后正常 -->
		<exec executable="mvn" dir="@{dir}" >
                                <arg line="@{options}" />
                                <arg line="@{goal}" />
                                <arg line="@{phase}" />
        </exec>
		
		
		

运行方式sequential为顺序执行, parallel为并行执行。

2.1.8.1. Git

			
<macrodef name = "git">
    <attribute name = "command" />
    <attribute name = "dir" default = "" />
    <element name = "args" optional = "true" />
    <sequential>
        <echo message = "git @{command}" />
        <exec executable = "git" dir = "@{dir}">
            <arg value = "@{command}" />
            <args/>
        </exec>
    </sequential>
</macrodef>
<macrodef name = "git-clone-pull">
    <attribute name = "repository" />
    <attribute name = "dest" />
    <sequential>
        <git command = "clone">
            <args>
                <arg value = "@{repository}" />
                <arg value = "@{dest}" />
            </args>
        </git>
        <git command = "pull" dir = "@{dest}" />
    </sequential>
</macrodef>
			
			
			
<git command = "clone">
    <args>
        <arg value = "git://github.com/280north/ojunit.git" />
        <arg value = "ojunit" />
    </args>
</git>

<git command = "pull" dir = "repository_path" />		

<git-clone-pull repository="git://github.com/280north/ojunit.git" dest="ojunit" />	
			
			

2.1.8.2. Rsync

			
			
	<macrodef name="rsync">
		<attribute name="option" default="auzv" />
		<attribute name="src" default="" />
		<attribute name="dest" default="" />
		<element name="args" optional="true" />
		<sequential>
			<exec executable="rsync">
				<arg value="@{option}" />
				<arg value="@{src}" />
				<arg value="@{dest}" />
				<args />
			</exec>
		</sequential>
	</macrodef>			
			
			
			
			
	<target name="deploy" depends="compile">
		<rsync option="-auzv" src="${project.dest}" dest="${remote}:${destination}">
			<args>
				<arg value="-P" />
			</args>
		</rsync>
	</target>			
			
			

2.1.8.3. SSH

			
	<macrodef name="ssh">
		<attribute name="host" />
		<attribute name="command" />
		<attribute name="keyfile" default="~/.ssh/id_rsa" />
		<element name="args" optional="true" />
		<sequential>
			<exec executable="ssh">
				<arg value="@{host}" />
				<!-- arg value="-i @{keyfile}" / -->
				<args />
				<arg value="@{command}" />
			</exec>
		</sequential>
	</macrodef>
			
			
			
	<target name="stop" depends="">
		<!-- ssh host="${remote}" command="/srv/apache-tomcat/bin/catalina.sh stop -force" keyfile="~/.ssh/id_rsa" / -->
		<ssh host="${remote}" command="/srv/apache-tomcat/bin/shutdown.sh" />
	</target>
	<target name="start" depends="">
		<ssh host="${remote}" command="/srv/apache-tomcat/bin/startup.sh" keyfile="~/.ssh/id_rsa" />
	</target>		
			
			

2.1.8.4. maven

			
        <macrodef name="mvn">
                <attribute name="options" default="" />
                <attribute name="goal" default="" />
                <attribute name="phase" default=" " />
                <attribute name="dir" default="" />
                <element name="args" optional="false" />
                <sequential>
                        <exec executable="mvn" dir="@{dir}" >
                                <arg line="@{options}" />
                                <arg value="@{goal}" />
                                <arg line="@{phase}" />
                        </exec>
                </sequential>
        </macrodef>			
			
			

2.1.9. Javascript

		

$ cat build.xml 
<project name="Attachments" default="print">
    <property name="numAttachments" value="20" />
    <target name="generate">
        <script language="javascript"><![CDATA[
            var list = '1';
            var limit = project.getProperty( "numAttachments" );
            for (var i=2;i<limit;i++)
            { 
                list = list + ',' + i;
            }
            project.setNewProperty("list", list);            
		print(list);
        ]] >
        </script>    
    </target>
</project>

		
		
		
$ ant generate
Buildfile: /www/testing/build.xml

generate:
   [script] 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19

BUILD SUCCESSFUL
Total time: 0 seconds
		
		

2.1.10. mail

https://ant.apache.org/manual/Tasks/mail.html

		
cp ~/.m2/repository/com/sun/mail/javax.mail/1.5.6/javax.mail-1.5.6.jar /srv/apache-ant-1.9.6/lib
cp /www/.m2/repository/com/sun/mail/javax.mail/1.5.6/javax.mail-1.5.6.jar /srv/apache-ant-1.10.1/lib/
		
		

Examples

		
<mail from="me"
      tolist="you"
      subject="Results of nightly build"
      files="build.log"/>
Sends an email from me to you with a subject of Results of nightly build and includes the contents of the file build.log in the body of the message.

<mail mailhost="smtp.myisp.com" mailport="1025" subject="Test build">
  <from address="config@myisp.com"/>
  <replyto address="me@myisp.com"/>
  <to address="all@xyz.com"/>
  <message>The ${buildname} nightly build has completed</message>
  <attachments>
    <fileset dir="dist">
      <include name="**/*.zip"/>
    </fileset>
  </attachments>
</mail>
		
		

2.1.11. FAQ

2.1.11.1. warning: 'includeantruntime' was not set, defaulting to build.sysclasspath=last; set to false for repeatable builds

includeantruntime="false"

			
<target name="compile" depends="init">
   <javac includeantruntime="false" srcdir="${src}" destdir="${dest}"/>
</target>
			
			

or

			
<property name="build.sysclasspath" value="last"/>
			
			

2.1.11.2. 调试 exec

将 executable="echo" 设置成 echo 是一种不错的调试手段

			
        <macrodef name="gulp">
                <attribute name="stage" default=""/>
                <attribute name="src" default=""/>
                <attribute name="dir" default="" />
                <sequential>
                        <exec vmlauncher="false" executable="echo" dir="@{dir}" osfamily="unix">
                                <arg line="--stage @{stage} --src @{src}"/>
                                <!-- arg value="stage @{stage}" / -->
                        </exec>
                </sequential>
        </macrodef>

        <target name="gulp">
                <gulp stage="${git.branch}" src="cn" dir="."/>
        </target>