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第 46 章 Nginx

目录

46.1. Installing
46.1.1. Installing by apt-get under the debain/ubuntu
46.1.2. CentOS
46.1.2.1. spawn-fcgi script
46.1.2.2. php-fpm
46.1.2.3. fastcgi backend
46.1.3. installing by source
46.1.4. -V show version and configure options then exit
46.1.5. config test
46.1.6. rotate log
46.1.6.1. log shell
46.1.6.2. /etc/logrotate.d/nginx
46.1.7. CentOS 7
46.2. nginx 配置文件
46.2.1. http 配置
46.2.2. events
46.2.3. gzip
46.2.3.1. CDN支持
46.2.4. server_tokens
46.2.5. ssi
46.2.6. server
46.2.6.1. listen
46.2.6.2. 单域名虚拟主机
46.2.6.3. ssl 虚拟主机
46.2.6.4. server_name 配置
46.2.6.5. root 通过$host智能匹配目录
46.2.6.6. location
46.2.6.7. expires
46.2.6.8. access
46.2.6.9. autoindex
46.2.6.10. try_files
46.2.6.11. add_header
46.2.7. HTTP2 配置 SSL证书
46.2.7.1. spdy
46.2.7.2. HTTP2
46.2.7.3. 用户访问 HTTP时强制跳转到 HTTPS
46.2.8. rewrite
46.2.8.1. http get 参数处理
46.2.8.2. 正则取非
46.2.9. upstream 负载均衡
46.2.9.1. weight 权重配置
46.2.10. fastcgi
46.2.10.1. spawn-fcgi
46.2.10.2. php-fpm
46.2.11. return
46.2.12. Nginx 变量
46.2.12.1. $host
46.2.12.2. http_user_agent
46.2.12.3. http_referer
46.2.12.4. request_filename
46.2.12.5. request_uri
46.2.12.6. remote_addr
46.2.12.7. http_cookie
46.2.12.8. request_method
46.2.12.9. invalid_referer
46.2.12.10. 自定义变量
46.2.12.11. if 条件判断
46.3. Proxy
46.3.1. proxy_cache
46.3.2. rewrite + proxy_pass
46.3.3. request_filename + proxy_pass
46.3.4. $request_uri 与 proxy_pass 联合使用
46.3.5. try_files 与 proxy_pass 共用
46.3.6. Proxy 与 SSI
46.3.7. Host
46.3.8. expires
46.3.9. X-Forwarded-For
46.3.10. X-Sendfile
46.3.11. proxy_http_version
46.3.12. proxy_set_header
46.3.13. timeout 超时时间
46.3.14. example
46.3.14.1. upstream 实例
46.3.14.2. Tomcat 实例
46.3.14.3. Nginx -> Nginx -> Tomcat
46.3.14.4. Proxy 处理 Cookie
46.4. Nginx module
46.4.1. stub_status
46.4.2. sub_filter 页面中查找和替换
46.4.3. auth_basic
46.4.4. valid_referers
46.4.5. ngx_http_flv_module
46.4.6. ngx_http_mp4_module
46.4.7. limit_zone
46.4.8. image_filter
46.5. Example
46.5.1. Nginx + Tomcat
46.5.2. 拦截index.html
46.5.3. Session 的 Cookie 域处理
46.6. FAQ
46.6.1. 405 Not Allowed?
46.6.2. 502 Bad Gateway?
46.6.3. 413 Request Entity Too Large
46.6.4. 502 Bad Gateway?
46.6.5. 499 Client Closed Request
46.6.6. proxy_pass
46.6.7. proxy_pass SESSION 丢失问题
46.6.8. [alert] 55785#0: *11449 socket() failed (24: Too many open files) while connecting to upstream
46.6.9. server_name 与 SSI 注意事项
46.6.10. location 跨 document_root 引用,引用 document_root 之外的资源
46.6.11. nginx: [warn] duplicate MIME type "text/html" in /etc/nginx/nginx.conf

46.1. Installing

46.1.1. Installing by apt-get under the debain/ubuntu

			
$ sudo apt-get install nginx
			
			
			
sudo /etc/init.d/nginx start
			
			

46.1.2. CentOS

http://nginx.org/packages/centos/$releasever/$basearch/

$releasever 是版本号

$basearch 处理器架构

http://nginx.org/packages/centos/6/x86_64/

			
cat > /etc/yum.repos.d/nginx.repo <<EOF
[nginx]
name=nginx repo
baseurl=http://nginx.org/packages/centos/6/x86_64/
gpgcheck=0
enabled=1
EOF
			
			

i386

			
cat > /etc/yum.repos.d/nginx.repo <<EOF
[nginx]
name=nginx repo
baseurl=http://nginx.org/packages/centos/5/i386/
gpgcheck=0
enabled=1
EOF
			
			
yum search nginx
============================================= Matched: nginx =============================================
nginx.x86_64 : high performance web server

yum install -y nginx
chkconfig nginx on
service nginx start
			

46.1.2.1. spawn-fcgi script

yum -y install spawn-fcgi
				

/etc/sysconfig/spawn-fcgi

移除SOCKET与OPTIONS注释, apache改为nginx

# cat /etc/sysconfig/spawn-fcgi
# You must set some working options before the "spawn-fcgi" service will work.
# If SOCKET points to a file, then this file is cleaned up by the init script.
#
# See spawn-fcgi(1) for all possible options.
#
# Example :
SOCKET=/var/run/php-fcgi.sock
OPTIONS="-u apache -g apache -s $SOCKET -S -M 0600 -C 32 -F 1 -P /var/run/spawn-fcgi.pid -- /usr/bin/php-cgi"
				
				
chkconfig spawn-fcgi on
				
				

starting spawn-fcgi

/etc/init.d/spawn-fcgi start
				

check port

# netstat -nl
Active Internet connections (only servers)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address               Foreign Address             State
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:22                  0.0.0.0:*                   LISTEN
tcp        0      0 :::22                       :::*                        LISTEN
Active UNIX domain sockets (only servers)
Proto RefCnt Flags       Type       State         I-Node Path
unix  2      [ ACC ]     STREAM     LISTENING     25282  /var/run/php-fcgi.sock
unix  2      [ ACC ]     STREAM     LISTENING     8227   @/com/ubuntu/upstart
				
				

Unix domain socket

location ~ \.php$ { fastcgi_pass unix:/var/run/php-fcgi.sock; fastcgi_index index.php; fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME /var/www/nginx-default$fastcgi_script_name; include fastcgi_params; }

TCP/IP

/usr/bin/spawn-fcgi -a 127.0.0.1 -p 9000 -u nginx -g nginx -d /www -C 32 -F 1 -P /var/run/spawn-fcgi.pid -f /usr/bin/php-cgi
				

				
        location ~ \.php$ {
            fastcgi_pass   127.0.0.1:9000;
            fastcgi_index  index.php;
            fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME  /var/www/nginx-default$fastcgi_script_name;
            include        fastcgi_params;
        }
				
				
# netstat -tulpn | grep :9000
tcp        0      0 127.0.0.1:9000              0.0.0.0:*                   LISTEN      26877/php-cgi
				
chkconfig nginx on
				

check config

nginx -t
				

46.1.2.2. php-fpm

rpm -Uvh http://download.fedora.redhat.com/pub/epel/6/x86_64/epel-release-6-5.noarch.rpm
yum install nginx -y
				

chkconfig nginx on
				

check config

nginx -t
				
yum -y install mysql mysql-server
yum -y install php php-cgi php-mysql php-mbstring php-gd php-fastcgi
yum -y install perl-DBI perl-DBD-MySQL
				

其他 php-fpm YUM源

rpm --import http://rpms.famillecollet.com/RPM-GPG-KEY-remi
rpm -ivh http://rpms.famillecollet.com/enterprise/remi-release-6.rpm
				
# rpm -Uvh http://centos.alt.ru/repository/centos/6/i386/centalt-release-6-1.noarch.rpm
# yum update
				

46.1.2.3. fastcgi backend

				
upstream backend  {
  server   localhost:1234;
}

fastcgi_pass   backend;
				
				

46.1.3. installing by source

			
cd /usr/local/src/
wget http://www.nginx.org/download/nginx-1.0.6.tar.gz

./configure --prefix=/usr/local/server/nginx \
--with-openssl=/usr/include \
--with-pcre=/usr/include/pcre/ \
--with-http_stub_status_module \
--without-http_memcached_module \
--without-http_fastcgi_module \
--without-http_rewrite_module \
--without-http_map_module \
--without-http_geo_module \
--without-http_autoindex_module
			
			

rpm 所使用的编译参数

nginx -V
nginx: nginx version: nginx/1.0.6
nginx: built by gcc 4.4.4 20100726 (Red Hat 4.4.4-13) (GCC)
nginx: TLS SNI support enabled
nginx: configure arguments: --prefix=/etc/nginx/ --sbin-path=/usr/sbin/nginx --conf-path=/etc/nginx/nginx.conf --error-log-path=/var/log/nginx/error.log --http-log-path=/var/log/nginx/access.log --pid-path=/var/run/nginx.pid --lock-path=/var/run/nginx.lock --http-client-body-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/client_temp --http-proxy-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/proxy_temp --http-fastcgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/fastcgi_temp --http-uwsgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/uwcgi_temp --http-scgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/scgi_temp --user=nginx --group=nginx --with-http_ssl_module --with-http_realip_module --with-http_addition_module --with-http_sub_module --with-http_dav_module --with-http_flv_module --with-http_gzip_static_module --with-http_random_index_module --with-http_secure_link_module --with-http_stub_status_module --with-mail --with-mail_ssl_module --with-file-aio --with-ipv6
			
# nginx -V
nginx version: nginx/1.2.3
built by gcc 4.4.4 20100726 (Red Hat 4.4.4-13) (GCC)
TLS SNI support enabled
configure arguments: --prefix=/etc/nginx/ --sbin-path=/usr/sbin/nginx --conf-path=/etc/nginx/nginx.conf --error-log-path=/var/log/nginx/error.log --http-log-path=/var/log/nginx/access.log --pid-path=/var/run/nginx.pid --lock-path=/var/run/nginx.lock --http-client-body-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/client_temp --http-proxy-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/proxy_temp --http-fastcgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/fastcgi_temp --http-uwsgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/uwsgi_temp --http-scgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/scgi_temp --user=nginx --group=nginx --with-http_ssl_module --with-http_realip_module --with-http_addition_module --with-http_sub_module --with-http_dav_module --with-http_flv_module --with-http_mp4_module --with-http_gzip_static_module --with-http_random_index_module --with-http_secure_link_module --with-http_stub_status_module --with-mail --with-mail_ssl_module --with-file-aio --with-ipv6 --with-cc-opt='-O2 -g'
			

46.1.4. -V show version and configure options then exit

[root@netkiller tmp]# nginx -v
nginx version: nginx/1.10.1

[root@netkiller tmp]# nginx -V
nginx version: nginx/1.10.1
built by gcc 4.8.5 20150623 (Red Hat 4.8.5-4) (GCC) 
built with OpenSSL 1.0.1e-fips 11 Feb 2013
TLS SNI support enabled
configure arguments: --prefix=/etc/nginx --sbin-path=/usr/sbin/nginx --modules-path=/usr/lib64/nginx/modules --conf-path=/etc/nginx/nginx.conf --error-log-path=/var/log/nginx/error.log --http-log-path=/var/log/nginx/access.log --pid-path=/var/run/nginx.pid --lock-path=/var/run/nginx.lock --http-client-body-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/client_temp --http-proxy-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/proxy_temp --http-fastcgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/fastcgi_temp --http-uwsgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/uwsgi_temp --http-scgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/scgi_temp --user=nginx --group=nginx --with-http_ssl_module --with-http_realip_module --with-http_addition_module --with-http_sub_module --with-http_dav_module --with-http_flv_module --with-http_mp4_module --with-http_gunzip_module --with-http_gzip_static_module --with-http_random_index_module --with-http_secure_link_module --with-http_stub_status_module --with-http_auth_request_module --with-http_xslt_module=dynamic --with-http_image_filter_module=dynamic --with-http_geoip_module=dynamic --with-http_perl_module=dynamic --add-dynamic-module=njs-1c50334fbea6/nginx --with-threads --with-stream --with-stream_ssl_module --with-http_slice_module --with-mail --with-mail_ssl_module --with-file-aio --with-ipv6 --with-http_v2_module --with-cc-opt='-O2 -g -pipe -Wall -Wp,-D_FORTIFY_SOURCE=2 -fexceptions -fstack-protector-strong --param=ssp-buffer-size=4 -grecord-gcc-switches -m64 -mtune=generic'

			

46.1.5. config test

$ sudo service nginx configtest
Testing nginx configuration: nginx.
			

46.1.6. rotate log

46.1.6.1. log shell

				
# cat /srv/bin/rotatelog.sh

#!/bin/bash
# run this script at 0:00

#Nginx Log Path
log_dir="/var/log/nginx"
date_dir=`date +%Y/%m/%d/%H`

mkdir -p ${log_dir}/${date_dir} > /dev/null 2>&1
mv ${log_dir}/access.log ${log_dir}/${date_dir}/access.log
mv ${log_dir}/error.log ${log_dir}/${date_dir}/error.log

kill -USR1 `cat /var/run/nginx.pid`

gzip ${log_dir}/${date_dir}/access.log &
gzip ${log_dir}/${date_dir}/error.log &
				
				

46.1.6.2. /etc/logrotate.d/nginx

				
# cat /etc/logrotate.d/nginx
/var/log/nginx/*.log {
        daily
        missingok
        rotate 52
        compress
        delaycompress
        notifempty
        create 640 root adm
        sharedscripts
        postrotate
                [ -f /var/run/nginx.pid ] && kill -USR1 `cat /var/run/nginx.pid`
        endscript
}
				
				

46.1.7. CentOS 7

			
#!/bin/bash
rpm -ivh http://nginx.org/packages/centos/7/noarch/RPMS/nginx-release-centos-7-0.el7.ngx.noarch.rpm
yum install -y nginx

cp /etc/nginx/nginx.conf{,.original}

vim /etc/nginx/nginx.conf <<VIM > /dev/null 2>&1
:%s/worker_processes  1;/worker_processes  8;/
:%s/worker_connections  1024;/worker_connections  4096;/
:%s/#gzip/server_tokens off;\r    gzip/
:%s/#gzip/gzip/
:wq
VIM

sed -i '4iworker_rlimit_nofile 65530;' /etc/nginx/nginx.conf

systemctl enable nginx
systemctl start nginx			
			
			

测试配置文件是否正确

# nginx -t
nginx: the configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf syntax is ok
nginx: configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf test is successful